On Microstructure Estimation Using Flatbed Scanners for Paper Surface-Based Authentication (9:20 AM – 9:40 AM) Runze Liu and Chau-Wai Wong – Virtual presentation IEEE Transactions on Information Forensics and Security 2021, vol. 16, DOI: 10.1109/TIFS.2021.3071585
Paper surfaces under the microscopic view are observed to be formed by intertwisted wood fibers. Such structures of paper surfaces are unique from one location to another and are almost impossible to duplicate. Previous work used microscopic surface normals to characterize such intrinsic structures as a “fingerprint” of paper for security and forensic applications. In this work, we examine several key research questions of feature extraction in both scientific and engineering aspects to facilitate the deployment of paper surface-based authentication when flatbed scanners are used as the acquisition device. We analytically show that, under the unique optical setup of flatbed scanners, the specular reflection does not play a role in norm map estimation. We verify, using a larger dataset than prior work, that the scanner-acquired norm maps, although blurred, are consistent with those measured by confocal microscopes. We confirm that, when choosing an authentication feature, high spatial-frequency subbands of the heightmap are more powerful than the norm map. Finally, we show that it is possible to empirically calculate the physical dimensions of the paper patch needed to achieve a certain authentication performance in equal error rate (EER). We analytically show that log(EER) is decreasing linearly in the edge length of a paper patch.
DRL-FAS: A Novel Framework Based on Deep Reinforcement Learning for Face Anti-Spoofing (9:40 AM – 10:00 AM) Rizhao Cai, Haoliang Li, Shiqi Wang, Changsheng Chen and Alex C. Kot – Virtual presentation IEEE Transactions on Information Forensics and Security 2021, vol. 16, DOI: 10.1109/TIFS.2020.3026553
Inspired by the philosophy employed by human beings to determine whether a presented face example is genuine or not, i.e., to glance at the example globally first and then carefully observe the local regions to gain more discriminative information, for the face anti-spoofing problem, we propose a novel framework based on the Convolutional Neural Network (CNN) and the Recurrent Neural Network (RNN). In particular, we model the behavior of exploring face-spoofing-related information from image sub-patches by leveraging deep reinforcement learning. We further introduce a recurrent mechanism to learn representations of local information sequentially from the explored sub-patches with an RNN. Finally, for the classification purpose, we fuse the local information with the global one, which can be learned from the original input image through a CNN. Moreover, we conduct extensive experiments, including ablation study and visualization analysis, to evaluate our proposed framework on various public databases. The experiment results show that our method can generally achieve state-of-the-art performance among all scenarios, demonstrating its effectiveness.
Privacy-Preserving Distributed Processing: Metrics, Bounds and Algorithms (10:00 AM – 10:20 AM) Qiongxiu Li, Jaron Skovsted Gundersen, Richard Heusdens and Mads Græsbøll Christensen – On-site presentation
Privacy-preserving distributed processing has recently attracted considerable attention. It aims to design solutions for conducting signal processing tasks over networks in a decentralized fashion without violating privacy. Many existing algorithms can be adopted to solve this problem such as differential privacy, secure multiparty computation, and the recently proposed distributed optimization based subspace perturbation algorithms. However, since each of them is derived from a different context and has different metrics and assumptions, it is hard to choose or design an appropriate algorithm in the context of distributed processing. In order to address this problem, we first propose general mutual information based information-theoretical metrics that are able to compare and relate these existing algorithms in terms of two key aspects: output utility and individual privacy. We consider two widely-used adversary models, the passive and eavesdropping adversary. Moreover, we derive a lower bound on individual privacy which helps to understand the nature of the problem and provides insights on which algorithm is preferred given different conditions. To validate the above claims, we investigate a concrete example and compare a number of state-of-the-art approaches in terms of the concerned aspects using not only theoretical analysis but also numerical validation. Finally, we discuss and provide principles for designing appropriate algorithms for different applications.
Unsupervised and Self-Adaptative Techniques for Cross-Domain Person Re-Identification (10:20 AM – 10:40 AM) Gabriel C. Bertocco, Fernanda Andaló and Anderson Rocha – Virtual presentation
IEEE Transactions on Information Forensics and Security 2021, vol. 16, DOI: 10.1109/TIFS.2021.3107157
Person Re-Identification (ReID) across non-overlapping cameras is a challenging task, and most works in prior art rely on supervised feature learning from a labeled dataset to match the same person in different views. However, it demands the time-consuming task of labeling the acquired data, prohibiting its fast deployment in forensic scenarios. Unsupervised Domain Adaptation (UDA) emerges as a promising alternative, as it performs feature adaptation from a model trained on a source to a target domain without identity-label annotation. However, most UDA-based methods rely upon a complex loss function with several hyper-parameters, hindering the generalization to different scenarios. Moreover, as UDA depends on the translation between domains, it is crucial to select the most reliable data from the unseen domain, avoiding error propagation caused by noisy examples on the target data – an often overlooked problem. In this sense, we propose a novel UDA-based ReID method that optimizes a simple loss function with only one hyper-parameter and takes advantage of triplets of samples created by a new offline strategy based on the diversity of cameras within a cluster. This new strategy adapts and regularizes the model, avoiding overfitting the target domain. We also introduce a new self-ensembling approach, which aggregates weights from different iterations to create a final model, combining knowledge from distinct moments of the adaptation. For evaluation, we consider three well-known deep learning architectures and combine them for the final decision. The proposed method does not use person re-ranking nor any identity label on the target domain and outperforms state-of-the-art techniques, with a much simpler setup, on the Market to Duke, the challenging Market1501 to MSMT17, and Duke to MSMT17 adaptation scenarios.